Big Is Beautiful

Big Is Beautiful

Debunking the Myth of Small Business

By Robert D. Atkinson and Michael Lind

Why small business is not the basis of American prosperity, not the foundation of American democracy, and not the champion of job creation.





Why small business is not the basis of American prosperity, not the foundation of American democracy, and not the champion of job creation.

In this provocative book, Robert Atkinson and Michael Lind argue that small business is not, as is widely claimed, the basis of American prosperity. Small business is not responsible for most of the country's job creation and innovation. American democracy does not depend on the existence of brave bands of self-employed citizens. Small businesses are not systematically discriminated against by government policy makers. Rather, Atkinson and Lind argue, small businesses are not the font of jobs, because most small businesses fail. The only kind of small firm that contributes to technological innovation is the technological start-up, and its success depends on scaling up. The idea that self-employed citizens are the foundation of democracy is a relic of Jeffersonian dreams of an agrarian society. And governments, motivated by a confused mix of populist and free market ideology, in fact go out of their way to promote small business. Every modern president has sung the praises of small business, and every modern president, according to Atkinson and Lind, has been wrong.

Pointing to the advantages of scale for job creation, productivity, innovation, and virtually all other economic benefits, Atkinson and Lind argue for a “size neutral” policy approach both in the United States and around the world that would encourage growth rather than enshrine an anachronism. If we overthrow the “small is beautiful” ideology, we will be able to recognize large firms as the engines of progress and prosperity that they are.


Out of Print ISBN: 9780262037709 368 pp. | 6 in x 9 in 9 figures


$19.95 T ISBN: 9780262537100 368 pp. | 6 in x 9 in 9 figures


  • Big Is Beautiful succeeds in highlighting why it is in our collective interest to find ways to help the biggest corporations earn back our trust.

    New York Times

  • The authors are correct that many people overrate both the benefits of small business and the evils of bigness. And although antimonopolism is rightly getting renewed attention, it is not equipped to deal with most of what ails the economy.

    Harvard Business Review


  • Atkinson and Lind's deeply researched book is a needed corrective to current unexamined assumptions about job creation. While acknowledging that the power of giants can bring abuses, they make a compelling case about the virtues of size and scale for innovation and national enrichment. Agree or not, their economic prescriptions are sure to be discussed widely by policy makers of all political persuasions.

    Rosabeth Moss Kanter

    Professor, Harvard Business School; author of Move: Putting America's Infrastructure Back in the Lead

  • Atkinson and Lind present a well-researched and thoughtful correction to the widely held view that it is small business alone that is the engine of economic progress. Their focus on the importance of scale is both historically grounded and eminently relevant to today's connected and information-driven global economy. Big Is Beautiful should be read by business leaders and policy makers around the world.

    Sam Palmisano

    Chairman, The Center for Global Enterprise; former Chairman and CEO, IBM

  • Atkinson and Lind reconstruct the history of economic development to document the role of large enterprises in driving technological innovation and growth. Their nuanced analysis shows how monopoly profits—however transient they may prove to be—are essential to motivate and to fund R&D at the frontier. From Kodak and DuPont through IBM and Xerox to Google and Amazon, the giant firms have been central to this history, outweighing the much hailed but largely sentimentalized celebration of small business.

    Dr. William H. Janeway

    Senior Advisor, Warburg Pincus; Affiliated Member of Economics Faculty, University of Cambridge

  • In an age of mindless partisanship and chronic groupthink, Atkinson and Lind are just the kind of antidote that we need. Whether you agree with their thesis or not—and especially if you disagree—you should read this book. You will not have wasted your time.

    Edward Luce

    Washington commentator, Financial Times